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A House Divided, Standing by ZekSora A House Divided, Standing by ZekSora
In our world, the Second Anglo-American War is known as the War of 1812, and it ended in an essential draw (pls no hate, Canadians). However, ITTL, it happens a lot earlier, and goes quite differently--namely, a devastating loss for the United States, reducing it to only the territory seen above. As this is a political history, I'll focus pretty much exclusively on the politics of the situation, and go by period.


1832: The Democrat-Republicans are pretty much obliterated by their strong advocation of the war, while the Federalists are vindicated by the terrible loss and for several decades dominate national politics (with much the same policies as they had beforehand). However, the Democrats soon rise in the Western states, advocating a cooler foreign policy towards Britain--i.e., stopping the insanely favorable trade status held by the UK--and various populist, Jacksonian-esque, policies. The New England Federalists view the Democrats as an existential threat, thanks to their reliance on trade with the UK (despite how poor that trade has made much of the rest of the nation). Thus, when Democratic nominee James K. Polk, governor of Tennessee, wins the Presidency in 1832, it spurs many New England states to secede, forming the Republic of New England. This secession is backed by a delighted Britain, who immediately sends significant forces preventing Polk from restoring the Union by force. 

1836: Polk, in the third year of his administration, dies in an unfortunate riding accident and his Vice President, Richard M. Johnson, ascends to the Presidency. Thanks to Johnson's severely anti-slavery stance [seriously, look him up], South Carolina immediately begins ignoring Federal instructions. There are similar sentiments in many other Southern states, but they decide to wait until the 1836 election and run an independent pro-slavery ticket in opposition to the President. This independent ticket effectively tears the Democratic Party in two, the two resulting parties being the pro-slavery, pro-nullification Southern Party, and the pro-Union Unionist Party. The Unionist Party's easy triumph in the 1836 election over the Southerners and the remnants of the Federalists prompt many other Southern states to join South Carolina in becoming Nullifiers. 

1840: The 1836 election was a bitter victory for President Johnson. He found himself completely unable to counter the Nullifiers' secession without uniting them against him in military force; a confrontation that the United States would surely win, but it was highly likely that the British would attack through New England if they found the United States occupied to restore their previous concessions Polk had ended. (This would have left him perceived as one of the worst presidents in American history, had it not been for his passing of an Amendment mandating gradual, compensated emancipation in what was left of the Union.) Johnson did, however, see one possible solution to the situation in which the Union found itself, in the person of Daniel Webster. Daniel Webster, the Federalist contender in 1832, was nevertheless strongly pro-Union, enough so that he left his home state of Massachusetts and took up permanent residence in D.C., maintaining his seat as Massachusetts Senator. When many in New York began to express their discontent with the situation (particularly the British troops being quartered among them), President Johnson quietly sent Webster to cut a deal with the New Yorkers. In 1838, the secret negotiations paid off, and New York was readmitted to the Union as if it had never left (as indeed, legally it had not). Faced with a hostile local populace and a large incoming contingent of Federal troops (Polk and Johnson had been steadily building up the Army since 1833), the British left without a fight. For Webster's part, he secured the nomination of the Unionist Party with ease (his presence leading to almost all of the remaining Federalists voting for the ticket) and the Presidency in 1840.

1844: Webster's accession to the Presidency was marked by the immediate beginning of readmittance negotiations with the other New England states--their relations with the British had cooled significantly as it became evident that London saw them as little more than a useful puppet, and the sight of a former staunch Federalist in the Presidency eased their anxieties greatly. These would conclude successfully within a year of Webster's inauguration. This alone would have guaranteed Webster a place among the greatest presidents of the United States, but the events that were to follow won him his nickname: the Great Reuniter. In December 1842, the western regions of Virginia seceded from the state, based upon their lack of use for slavery, pro-Unionism, and neglect from Richmond. They immediately sent a petition to the Federal government to be admitted as a state of their own. Congress readily complied, creating the state of West Virginia. The Virginians, however, were greatly displeased with this, enough so that by the time West Virginia was admitted to the Union there were already Virginian militia in its eastern regions. Webster elected to take this as an effective declaration of war, and had Congress declare Virginia "in rebellion", allowing him to use the now-powerful Army to restore order, which they did quickly and easily. Virginia was declared "under reconstruction," an effective military occupation, where slaves would be emancipated by force without any compensation for their owners. Facing a choice between coming under military rule and having full state privileges, all of the other Nullifier states but South Carolina quickly agreed to rejoin the Union under similar terms as the New England states--provided, of course, that the emancipated slaves would be shipped to British Sierra Leone. South Carolina, refusing to give in, fell under the same military occupation as Virginia. The Union reunited, many of the groups that had opposed that reunion found themselves with similar goals, especially now that the dividing barrier of slavery between north and south had disappeared. Thus, the Northern Federalists and the Southern Democrats united to form the Mutualist Party, a big-tent party that held that the Union was a "mutual compact between the States," and thus the states should be able to determine, in large part, their own destinies. Being a simple, single-issue party, the incredibly popular Daniel Webster had no problems obliterating their nominee, Abel P. Upshur in the 1844 election, though the Mutualists did make some gains in the Senate and House. 

I may continue this at some point, but that covers the decade-long Great Crisis. As always, if you have any questions, please ask!
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:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Dec 1, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
So how did the USA loose Louisiana?
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:iconzeksora:
ZekSora Featured By Owner Dec 1, 2016
They never had it. The Second Anglo-American War occurred before the United States could acquire Louisiana.
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:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Dec 1, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
Oh
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:iconstarlesstrooper2112:
StarlessTrooper2112 Featured By Owner Nov 24, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Just fyi the war of 1812 was a draw irl anyway.
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:iconzeksora:
ZekSora Featured By Owner Nov 24, 2016
That is, indeed, what I said in the description. ;)
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:iconstarlesstrooper2112:
StarlessTrooper2112 Featured By Owner Nov 24, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh I didn't read the first three words :/
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